Home School Life Journal From Preschool to High School

Home School Life Journal ........... Ceramics by Katie Bergenholtz
"Let us strive to make each moment beautiful."
Saint Francis DeSales

High School Health Credit: First Aid

High School Health Credit: First Aid

As part of the high school health requirements, we are going to be doing a first aid course this summer. I will be posting what we are learning and doing, as we go through the weeks. This series will begin this month, and will be posted each week throughout the summer, and will be worth 1 high school credit. Grading is based on 24 quizzes and class participation.
  1. Preparing to Act
  2. Acting in an Emergency
  3. The Human Body (human biology review)
  4. Assessing the Victim
  5. Cardiovascular Emergencies and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, and Automated External Defibrillators
  6. Airway Obstructions 
  7. Controlling Bleeding
  8. Shock
  9. Wounds
  10. Burns
  11. Head and Spinal Injuries
  12. Chest, Abdominal and Pelvic Injuries
  13. Bone, Joint and Muscle Injuries
  14. Extremity Injuries and Splinting
  15. Sudden Illness
  16. Poisoning
  17. Substance Misuse and Abuse
  18. Bites and Stings
  19. Cold and Heat Emergencies
  20. Behavioral Emergencies
  21. Pregnancy and Childbirth
  22. Remote Location First Aid
  23. Rescuing and Moving Victim
  24. Preparing for Natural Disasters

Text: Advanced First Aid, CPR and AED, National Safety Council

Ocean Currents; Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-12

What causes ocean currents? Learn how wind, temperature, salinity, and density set water into motion, and they make an in-depth investigation of the key physical science concept of density. This series of activities will cover these topics. For grades 5-12.

Ocean Currents, Part II: Salinity Currents
Ocean Currents, Part III: Temperature Currents
Ocean Currents, Part IV: Polar vs. Tropical Water
Ocean Currents, Part V: Ice Cubes Demonstration
Ocean Currents, Part VI: Layering Liquids
Ocean Currents, Part VII: Explorers and Ocean Currents
Additional Activity: Current Events

Literature Connections: 
Adrift: Seventy Six Days Lost at Sea, Steven Callahan, Grades: 7–12
Bounty Trilogy, Charles Nordoff and James Norman Hall, Grades: 7–12
By the Great Horn Spoon!, Sid Fleischman, Grades: 4–8
Call It Courage, Armstrong Sperry, Grades: 3–6
The Cay, Theodore Taylor, Grades: 6–8
Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle, Felicia Law, Grades: 4–8
Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, Alfred Lansing, Grades: 7–12
Island of the Blue Dolphins, Scott O’Dell, Grades: 5–12
The Magic School Bus On the Ocean Floor, Joanna Cole, Grades: 1–4 (For younger grades, but still has some good information.)
Moby Dick, Herman Melville, Grades: 7–12
The Robinson Crusoe, Daniel Defoe, Grades: 7–12
Treasure Island, Robert Louis Stevenson, Grades: 7–12
The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle, Avi, Grades: 5–8
The Voyager’s Stone: The Adventures of a Message-Carrying Bottle Adrift on the Ocean Sea, Robert Kraske, Reading Level is Grades: 3–6, but the story is wonderful and illustrations very informative.
Windcatcher, Avi, Grades: 4–7
The Wreck of the Waleship Essex, a Narrative Account, Owen Chase, Grades: 7–12

Sources and Resources:

Ancient Egypt Projects for Kids Mummification

The Apple Experiment

For our mummification experiment, the apples are waiting for the different substances we will add.
To begin our study of mummification, we did an experiment to learn about natron, the salts that the Ancient Egyptians used in mummification.

I have seen this done many times on various blogs. We took six plastic disposable cups and put an apple slice in each one. 
In one we added 1/4 cup Epsom Salt.

In one we added 1/4 cup Baking Soda.
In another, 1/4 cup table salt.

In two cups we added a combination of two substances; one we added a mixture of a 1/8 cup Epsom salt and 1/8 cup Baking Soda and in the other a combination of Table Salt and Baking Soda.
In the last cup, we left the apple alone, and labeled it "Control."

One week after we put our apple slices in various substances to see which one would dry them out the best, we look at the apple slices.
 First we looked at our control slice. It was dry, but had black mold on it.
Epsom Salt
The Epsom Salt slice was still quite wet and the Epsom Salt around the slice was very wet...

Table Salt
 ...as was the Table Salt slice.
Baking Soda
 The slice with the Baking Soda was also wet and it had black mold. The Baking Soda was wet, too.
Table Salt and Baking Soda
 The slice with the combination of Table Salt and Baking Soda was in a much more preserved, dry state...
Epsom Salt and Baking Soda
but the winner voted for the best preserved was the Epsom Salt and Baking Soda combination.

We decided that since we were comparing the preservation of these apple slices so as to learn something about how the Ancient Egyptians preserved their mummies with Natron, we would change our cups for fresh substances each week, taking away the substances that had leeched away the moisture and was holding it for a fresh batch. 
And here are our apple slices two weeks later. The salt one seemed like the dried apple slices you get at the store...soft and pliable.

The baking soda was hard and dry, but had evidence of mold which had later dried.

 The Epsom Salt apple slice had even more mold.
We also noticed that the Epsom Salt's crystals had gotten larger.
 The Epsom salt and Baking soda apple slice was more dried out and better preserved than either substance alone, but was a bit brittle.

 We felt the winner was the salt and baking soda, which left the apple slice well preserved, but not brittle.

Fruity Pharaohs: Or How To Make a Mummy

The first thing you need to do is make up some natron, the salts used to preserve pharaohs. Mix up about a pound of salt and about a pound of baking soda together in a bowl. Set aside; we will be using it later.

The pharaohs are made out of an orange and a potato cut in half.
Skewer them on a stiff piece of wire or a wooden skewer.
Don't forget to carve a face into the potato. Give your pharaoh personality! You could also give him a name. Quentin gave his skewer arms and legs.
Next, make an incision of about 2-3 inches along the left side of the pharaoh's abdomen (the orange) and pull out the internal organs (the orange pulp).
Put down a dry paper towel down and place on it about a tablespoon of the natron you made earlier. Place the internal organs (orange pulp) on the natron and then sprinkle about a teaspoon more on top. Wrap up the corners of the paper towel and secure with a piece of tape.
Next, take a cotton ball that has been soaked in some alcohol (either rubbing alcohol or wine is fine) and rub it all in the cavity. This kills bacteria that might make the pharaoh rot.
Next, sprinkle a mixture of aromatic spices inside the cavity. We used a mixture of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves. Apple or Pumpkin pie spice works well for this.
Place your finished pharaohs in a plastic box with about a quarter inch of the natron spread on the bottom. Lightly cover the pharaohs with some more natron.
Two weeks later, the orange is fully dry and preserved. The potato is still drying out, but is almost completely dry.
Once fully dry, you can wrap your mummy in bandages with wood glue. Here is our wrapped mummy on the tan tissue paper.

First Aid, Lesson 4: Assessing the Victim

Explain how to check the victim's responsiveness and normal breathing.
Tap the victim's shoulder and ask, "Are you okay?" Determine where the victim is on the following scale:
  • Alert
  • Responds to verbal stimuli
  • Responds to Painful stimuli (pinch)
  • Unresponsive
Check to see if the victim is breathing normally, if he can cough or speak. Determine if you need to start CPR.

Demonstrate how to move a victim into the recovery position and explain when this is done.
Position the victim's arm across the victim's body.
Bend both legs so the victim's position is stabilized.
Grasp the victim at the shoulder and hips and roll them on their side.
Check the airway and open mouth to allow drainage.

Explain the importance of each element in the SAMPLE history.

  • Signs and symptoms
  • Allergies
  • Medications
  • Previous problems
  • Last food or drink
  • Events

Demonstrate how to perform a physical examination of responsive victim without a life-threatening problem.

  1. Being careful not to move the victim's head or neck, check the head.
  2. Check neck area for medical alert necklace, deformity or swelling and pain. Do not move the neck.
  3. Check skin appearance, temperature and moisture.
  4. Check chest. Ask victim to breathe deeply.
  5. Check abdomen.
  6. Check pelvis and hips.
  7. Check upper extremities. Look for medical alert bracelet.
  8. Check lower extremities.

Hands-On Ancient Egyptian Activities: Cartouches

Cartouches are hieroglyphics written in an oval with a line at one end and represent royal names, coming into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu. We decided that we would like to make some in the form of necklaces.
 We rolled out some golden Sculpy into rough oblong ovals. Then we made grooves around the edges to make a border. We also added a line at the bottom made from thin snakes of Sculpy.

 The boys then made the chosen hieroglyphics with a skewer into the Sculpy. It is pretty easy to find hieroglyphics with a internet search. They also added a hole at the top so they could make them into necklaces.
After they were finished,we baked the clay according to the package directions.

 Once the cartouches were baked, we added black ink into into the hieroglyph-grooves. A thinned paint might work as well.

 A little more black ink around the border and a little here and there.

They put some cord through the hole and tied the ends together to make a necklace, making sure the cord is long enough to fit over their heads.

Ocean Currents, Part I: Surface Currents {Wind & Temperature}

Wind sets the surface of the ocean moving, but other forces direct the flow into major gyres circulating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Wind is one of the factors that cause currents. Another factor is the temperature of the water.

We did an experiment today showing how wind and cold temperature creates surface currents. To do this experiment, you will need a 9 x 13 baking pan, a package of liquid food coloring and some straws. Fill a 9 x 13 baking pan with about 1 inch of water and place it on a table. Put two large rocks to represent land masses on either side in the middle of the pan. If you wish, you can slip a copy of the Pacific Rim map under the pan, but you will need to put you land masses at least an inch from the side of the pan. Put 4 drops of green, blue and red food coloring in 3 corners and 8 drops of yellow food coloring in the fourth corner.

Trying not to bump the dish, watch to see what the colors do for a few minutes. Some of them may spread a bit, but they in general will stay in their corners unless you make waves by bumping the dish.

Put an ice cube in one of the corners. We chose the upper right hand corner. The ice should create a bit of a current in this corner, blending the two colors on that side of the pan a bit.

Putting the straw level with the surface of the water at the opposite side, blow lightly through the straw to create a current. You can get your students to record what they observe on the, with labels and arrows for direction of water and wind. This model simulates how winds set the surface water flowing in the same direction as wind. If you have trouble seeing the currents, you can make it more clear by making some plastic confetti by coloring with a permanent marker about a 4 inch square of a plastic sandwich bag. Cut this into about 20- 1/4 inch squares. Drop 10-15 plastic pieces that you have colored into the pan and ask students to observe. Hold the straw as you did before. If you are doing it right the current should be centered so that the plastic pieces deflect both right and left. The two circular currents, one clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and the other clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. These are gyres. Winds near the equator, called the trade winds, generally blow from east to west, causing east to West Equatorial Current. Draw this current on your own map with labels.

Using the straw as before, but position it so it can blow towards the rock. You will see turbulence, complicated and constantly changing swirling motion, as well as eddies and counter-currents forming around the island. Discuss how complicated currents can become where there are obstacles.

Now you can look at a picture of surface ocean currents. Based on what you saw in the pan, can you see how they are formed?
You can discuss how waste disposal in the water from any country can affect the whole world. Pretend the colors were different types of waste disposal. By the end, they were all mixed all over the pan.
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Originally posted 1/14/11