|part 8: Indians|
Have your student add to his timeline: 1848: End of war with Mexico. This resulted in California and the Southwest becoming part of the United States. Gold is found, Tipping off the Gold Rush.
We now call the indigenous people of America "Native Americans" but the pioneers called them "Indians", so that is how we will refer to them in this unit.
Tuesday: Identify the Indian Nations and Where They Lived
Have your student research what Indian Nations lived on the route the pioneers traveled, between Independence, Missouri and Oregon. Have him draw the territories for these tribes in the 10's on a map.
Have your student select one of the Indian Tribes and research how they lived in the 1800's. Were the pioneers in danger as they encountered the Tribe or were the pioneers helped through the Indians via trading/bartering, guiding the wagon trains or assisting the pioneers across rivers?
Were the pioneers afraid of the Indians? Can your student find examples of this in the books he is reading?
What effect did the pioneers have on the Indian's hunting grounds, grass, buffaloes and health?
Have your student research how the relationships between the Indians and the pioneers changed after the 1860's. Why?
Thursday: The Role-Play
The wagon train's guide has just informed you that the wagon train has an important decision to make. The trail soon spits and you can either continue on the Oregon Trail or take the California Trail. The Oregon Trail is shorter and leads almost directly to the next planned stop, Fort Boise but it is not the safest as it crosses a sacred Indian burial grounds and once on the trail, there is no way to get around these burial grounds. The guide also tells you that several previous wagon trains have been attacked near these burial grounds. The California Trail is very dry, and so finding water might become difficult and is longer but there is less of a chance of attack by Indians. The guide outlines the possibilities. He also says that we could send several scouts ahead on the Oregon Trail to check on Indian activity and/ or The California Trail to check the water availability. While they are gone, the wagon train must wait for the scouts return. If you decide to sent scouts ahead, how long will you be willing to wait, if the scouts don't return, before you decide the scouts have run into trouble?
If they decide to send out scouts, the scouts return in eight days. The scouts down the Oregon Trail say that they traveled for four days when they were surprised by a small band of Indians and they barely escaped with their lives. The scouts down the California Trail state that they found little water along the way. 200 DPs for time lost waiting for the scouts return. You must make a decision on which trail you will take. If they decide to split the wagon train, their EF's are divided in half.
If they decide on the California Trail, roll a six-sided die and on that number's wagin, his spouse (or second member of the party) is bitten by a rattlesnake. To ensure a prompt recovery, write a research paragraph as before on rattlesnake bites and how they treated them. 200 DPs for a good paragraph, Subtract 3 EFs for an unacceptable paragraph. If no paragraph is turned in, the spouse dies.
If he takes the Oregon Trail, and it comes to the point for overnight camping, he finds that grazing buffalo have clipped the prairie grass clean for miles around. If he is not carrying extra feed for the animals, they will become weak and unable to pull the wagon without rest. 300 DP's for not having extra animal feed.
On the Oregon Trail: Indians have stopped your wagon train, asking to trade. They need clothing and rifles and are willing to trade horses and food for these items. 200 DPs if he chooses to stop and make the trade offered, add 2 EFs for positive interactions with the Indians. If he tries to barter, the interactions become heated and the Indians end up demanding that the wagon train turn back, claiming that previous wagon trains damaged their sacred burial grounds. They warn that if you continue on the trail, you will be killed. If he chooses to continue, he has no immediate consequences.
If he chooses to turn back, you are delayed, costing you 300 DPs but is allowed to do so without any additional consequences.
Friday: Research Paper
Have your student work on his research paper.