Sui and Tang Dynasties (589-907)
Song Dynasty (960-1279)After the Tang dynasty fell, China became fragmented. Northwest China was taken over by Tibetans; the northeast by Mongols Khans; southeast by Thailand and the south by Vietnamese. The Song period saw advancements such as gunpowder, rockets, clocks, movable type printing, paddlewheel boats, magnetic compass and porcelain.
From about 1353, the Black Death broke out across China.
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)After a long campaign, the Mongols were driven out of China. During this peaceful period, China looked outward, exporting and importing goods to India, Middle East and Africa. From 1517 onward, the Portuguese and other Europeans traded mostly in Canton. Starting about 1552, major attacks on shipping by pirates off the coast of China affected trade. Rebels eventually took over much of China and in 1644, the Ming dynasty fell.