In physical science, the earth is typically viewed as being made up of five sections: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, the mantle and the core. The lithosphere is the top portion of the earth, sometimes just called the crust. The lithosphere, however, actually has three sections called soil, sediment and crust. Under the lithosphere, we find the mantle and under the mantle is the core, which is further split up into inner core and outer core. We have made a model of the lithosphere, mantle and core and making an interesting dessert in the process. After seeing this on Pinterest, I thought we could have some more fun learning about geology using Oreo cookies.
Plate TectonicsPlate Tectonics is a field of study within geology that deals with plates, or large unbroken slabs of rock, sliding over the upper portion of the mantle, called the asthenosphere.
Divergent Plate Boundary
At divergent boundaries, two plates move apart from each other and the space that this creates is filled with new material from the crust made from molten magma that formed below. Large quantities of hot asthenospheric material near the surface and the kinetic energy is enough to break apart the lithosphere.
Convergent Plate Boundary
Convergent Plate Boundary is a region where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of lithosphere move toward one another and collide. As a result of pressure, friction, and plate material melting in the mantle, earthquakes and volcanoes are common near convergent boundaries.
You can learn more about how earthquakes happen using hard-boiled eggs.
Transform Plate Boundary
Transform Plate Boundary is a type of fault in which the motion is mostly horizontal in either a left or right direction. Transform faults relieve strain by transporting it between ridges or places where one plate slips under another. They are always connected on both ends to other faults, ridges or plate movement.
You can also learn how mountains are made using graham crackers.