Home School Life Journal From Preschool to High School

Home School Life Journal ........... Ceramics by Katie Bergenholtz
"Let us strive to make each moment beautiful."
Saint Francis DeSales

High School Physical Science

1. Assuming a constant net force, as mass increases, inertia ____________ and acceleration of the object __________.
     a) increases, increases
     b) increases, decreases
     c) decreases, increases
     d) decreases, decreases

2. Which equation below represents the bulk of Newton's Second Law?
     a) a=m/f
     b) a=f*m
     c) f=a/m
     d) a=f/m

3. If you are walking at a steady pace, and you walk into a wall, the concept that most explains why you are hurt is:
     a) gravity
     b) inertia
     c) air resistance
     d) needing new glasses

4. What is required to be absent when an object is in freefall?
     a) gravity
     b) air resistance
     c) inertia
     d) force

5. When an object in non-freefall reaches terminal velocity:
     a) acceleration is 10 m/s squared
     b) velocity is zero
     c) net force is zero
     d) the object has reached static      equilibrium

6. The force that propels a rocket is provided by:
     a) gravity
     b) its exhaust gases
     c) The atmosphere against which the rocket pushes
     d) magic

7. What is the term we use to describe speed with direction?
     a) velocity
     b) acceleration
     c) inertia
     d) gravity

8. Which of Newton's Laws of Motion provided you the answer to question 6?
     a) First Law of Motion
     b) Second Law of Motion
     c) Third Law of Motion
     d) Fourth Law of Motion

9. What is the definition of speed?
     a) an object's change in velocity per unit of time
     b) an object's tendency to resist change in motion
     c) when the only force acting on an object is gravity
     d) distance traveled per unit of time

10. For the above question, each of the above answers is a possible definitions. Write the terms below that correspond with the definitions.

11.  What is the common word for the force upon an object due to gravity?
     a) weight
     b) acceleration
     c) mass
     d) velocity

12. Define friction. In addition to the complete definition, please include an insightful example from your own experiences or of others you know as a basis for further explaining this term. Draw a diagram to help with your

13. Define support force. In addition to the complete definition, please include an insightful example from your own experiences or of others you know as a basis for further explaining this term. Draw a diagram to help with your explanation.

14. Define dynamic equilibrium. In addition to the complete definition, please include an insightful example from your own experiences or of others you know as a basis for further explaining this term. Draw a diagram to help with your

15. Two identical pieces of paper are dropped at the same time. One is a flat sheet and the other is a crumpled ball. Draw side-by-side force diagrams for the two pieces of paper.  Be sure to include everything. Is either piece of paper in equilibrium (assume neither reaches terminal velocity)? If so, state the type. Which piece of paper will hit the floor first, and why?

Source: The questions come from reading Conceptual Physics.

High School Ancient History, Exam 2

Essay Questions

  1. Evaluate the origins of Rome and the essence of "res publica."
  2. During the Roman Revolution the leaders of the Republic lost their gift for compromise. How did this revolution come about and what were the effects it had on the Roman Republic, as personified by the fall of Caesar and the rise of Octavian?
  3. Trace the development of Christianity from it's beginnings in the Roman Empire, showing both the good fortunes and the setbacks it encountered.
  4. Many causes have been given for the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Analyze the various interpretations covered, being sure to consider economic, military, political and social causes. Be  sure to include what you think were the causes for the fall of Rome and why.

Short Answer

res public
Ides of March
Roman Law
Edict of Milan
Gaius Marius
Sermon on the Mount
Tiberius Gracheus
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Council of Nicaea (325 AD)
Age of the Martyr

Ancient History Map Quiz 2

After studying this map, on a blank map fill in where the six barbarian tribes originally resided and mark with an arrow the areas they invaded.
The Fall of the Roman Empire

Snapshot Summary January 2019

January 2019
After Celebrating New Year's Day (we had our usual New Year's Day Hoppin' John)...
Brenda opening her Japanese Tea Set Katie made for her.
we had a lovely Christmas with Brenda on the 2nd.
Brenda gave Sam this set of socks which look like sushi when they are rolled a certain way.
source: Amazon

We celebrated Twelfth Night and took down the tree on Epiphany.
We enjoyed playing games and all being together while the college kids were off. During this time, Sam found out that he got the Internship with Senator Bob Long with the Maryland House of Delegates in Annapolis. He is working 15 hours a week and taking his last three classes at Anne Arundel Community College (Physical Science with Lab, Computer with Lab and the Internship Class -yes, he gets paid and college credit for the Internship). My poor homeschooled son had to learn how to negotiate getting on a trolley and snapped this picture of the trolley station to ask he if I thought this is where he needed to wait for the trolley. Real life learning experience LOL!
Good news is that he loves his job and is getting good experience seeing politics in action.
A hug between sister and brothers.
Katie is also taking the computer course with Sam this semester as well as Personal Finance and Artist Portfolio development.
In our homeschool, we are plodding along, preparing Quentin to begin college year after next and still exploring options for James.

How was your January?

High School Ancient History Lesson 16: The Fall of Rome

Note the loss of security within the Empire and the causes/interpretations that explain why Rome fell.

Complete the outline using your notes.

I. The Germanic Invasions
     A. The Huns
     B. Visigoths
     C. Vandals
     D. Franks
     E. Angles and Saxons

II. The Fall of Rome
     A. Barbarization of the Empire from Within; Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire by Michael Rostovtzeff, and Tenny Frank's Race Mixture in the Roman Empire.
     B. Lack of Technological Advancements; F. W. Walbank, Decline of the Roman Empire in the West.
     C. Christianity; Edward Gibbons, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
     D. Manpower Shortage; A. E. R. Boak, Manpower Shortage and the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West
     E. Loss of Economic Freedom; W. L. Westerman, Economic Basis of Decline of Ancient Culture.
     F. Lack of any non-revolutionary means of reform; W Em Heitland, Roman Fate.
     G. Fall of an Ideal; David Tengwall

III. Conclusions
     A. Instead of one, there would be several cultures (West, Byzantium, Islam) in the Mediterranean
     B. End of cultural civilization
     C. Change from Urban time Rural society
     D. Ancient Civilizations came to an end

High School Ancient History Lesson 15: The Roman Empire: The Beginning of the End

Note the rise of the problems within the Empire and the attempts made to resolve those problems. Was it too late? Also, note that during this period Christianity was to flourish.

I. Crisis of the 3rd Century
     A. Political Weakness
     B. Military Weakness
     C. Economic Weakness

II. Restoration of Order
    A. Reign of Diocletian
          1. Military Developments
          2. Political Developments
          3. Persecution of the Christians
               a. Age of the Martyr
     B. Constantine
          1. Importance for Christianity
          2. Political Moves
          3. Christian Religion
     C. Theodosius
          1. Christianity, the official religion of the Empire

High School Ancient History Lesson 14: Roman Society and Architecture

Watch David Macaulay's Roman City and Andrea Cirla's The Seven Wonders of Ancient Rome.

Complete the following outline using your notes

I. Social Life within the Roman Empire
     A. Roman Forum
     B. Roman Aqueducts
     C. Roman Colosseum
     D. Rome -a city of monuments
     E. Trojan's Column
     F. Roman Arches
     G.Triumphant Procession/March

High School Ancient History Lesson 13: The Empire and the Rise of Christianity

Note the supreme security that the Roman Empire achieved and within that security the emergence of the philosophy of Christianity.

I. Principate of Augustus
     A. Military Power
     B. Political and Imperial Power
     C. Social and Religious Policy
     D. Literature
     E. Political Succession

Read Res Gestae: The Accomplishments of Agustus, Augustus

II. Successors to Augustus
     A. Tiberius
     B. Caligula
     C. Claudius
     D. Nero

III. The Empire at its Height
     A. The Flavian Emperors
          1. Titus Flavius Vespasian
          2. Domitian
     B. The Five Good Emperors
          1. Nerva
          2. Trajan
          3. Hadrian
          4. Antonius Pius
          5. Marcus Aurelius (Read Meditations, Marcus Aurelius.)
     C. The Roman Empire in the Second Century
          1. Economy
          2. Provincial Government
          3. Roman Law (Read The Laws, Cicero.)

IV. The Beginnings of Christianity (Roman Perspective)
     A. Roman attitudes of gods (Read The Sermon on the Mount.)
     B. Historical Strengths of Christianity
          1. He was human.
          2. He was a demanding leader.
          3. They created support groups.
          4. There was an individual ethic.
     C. Why did Christianity succeed?
          1. Will of God
          2. Leaders of Rome not worried about Christianity


2018 At A Glance

Here is a collage of our year. The months are in order, starting from the upper left with January 2018 and ending in the lower right, with December 2018.

January 2018 Painting, Twelfth Night

February 2018 Sculpture, Mardi Gras

March 2018 Magic the Gathering, Mardi Gras

April 2018 Empty Bowls, Easter

June 2018 Pippin, Steven Laid off

July 2018 Independence Day, Les Miserables

August 2018 Friendly's, Summer

September 2018 Back-to-School

October 2018 Halloween

November 2018 Beach, Thanksgiving

December 2018 Christmas

High School Ancient History Lesson 12: The Roman Revolution: The Decline of the Republic and the Rise of the Empire

Note the decline of the ideals/constitution of the res publica but the rise of the Empire and the saving of the Roman Empire.

I. Growing Problems within the Republic
     A. Large landed estates (Latifundias)
     B. Tiberius Gracchus
     C. Gaius Gracchus
     D. Gaius Marius
     E. Lucius Cornelius Sulla
     F. Pompey, Crassus and Caesar -First Triumvirate
     G. Marcus Tullius Cicero
     H. The Ides of March

II. Roman Empire
     A. Mark Anthony and Octavian
     B. The Augustan Settlement

How to Host a Successful Christmas Cookie Baking Party

One of the activities we look forward to every advent is the Cookie Baking party with our local homeschool group. It is a fun time together with friends and in the end we have a lovely assortment of Christmas cookies to share with guests for the holiday season. Since everyone picks their own recipes, we always enjoy both sharing our favorite cookies recipes and also tasting new recipes from our friends. This year we enjoyed a Banana Spice Cookie that one of the families' made that I would never have thought of making. We have done this activity for a few years now and so I would like to share with you some hints and tips that we have discovered by trial and error that might make the idea of hosting a Cookie Baking party in this busy season a little easier.

1. Place First you need to local a place to have the Cookie Bake. We hold ours at the church hall in which we meet for our co-op, but it can be done at a home. You just have to be organized so that the oven can be shared so that everyone is not needed the oven at the same time.

2. Early Sign-Ups Have a sign up in which you ask how many from each family will be participating and what cookies each family will be making. The first year we did the Cookie Bake, we had ten families sign up with multiple children in the families, and it became a bit overwhelming. If you have more than five or six families, you might want to break the Cookie Bake into two parties to prevent this. One year we only had three families participating, so we had each family prepare two recipes, instead of just one so that there would be more variety. The recipe choices should be on a first-come, first-served-type basis, which means that if someone signs up to make chocolate chip cookies, for example, then the later people who sign up cannot also sign up to make chocolate chip cookies. 

3. What Cookie Should I Make? The bigger the variety of cookies, the better, so have each member look over the list so far when their family signs up, and choose a cookie that is different from the rest. Make sure that the recipe you choose makes enough cookies. Also, make sure you check the amount of cookies the recipe makes. The rule of thumb is that the recipe should make enough for the family that is making it can take home one dozen, and the other families can take a half-dozen, (with a few leftover for mistakes and for tasting for those kids who are unable to wait). This can be changed, however, to suit the needs of your group as long as everyone knows what the amount your group has chosen for each family to make.

3. Share the Responsibility Each family is responsible for purchasing and bringing everything that their cookie of choice needs to be made. Often times this means bowls, spatulas, baking sheets, cooling racks and the like.

3. The Choice of Cookies There never seems to be enough ovens to be able to bake the cookies all at the same time, but there are ways of making the baking times staggered.
  • Make up some of the cookie dough at home before you come so that some of the cookies will be ready to bake as soon as you get to the Cookie Bake. Doughs that have to be chilled, such as Slice and Bake, (such as Pinwheels) or no-bake cookies (such as Chocolate-Peanut Butter Oatmeal No Bake Cookies) are natural choices, but just about any cookie recipe can be made in advance and transported as dough.
  • Choose cookies that have alternative ways of cooking such as Welch Cookies, which uses an electric skillet for cooking rather than an oven.
  • Cookies that need to be rolled out, such a Sugar Cookie Cut-Outs or Gingerbread Men, take a little longer to be ready to bake and so are also a good recipe to stagger the cooking times. They also can be decorated (don't forget to bring the materials for that as well) once they come out of the oven, while other cookies are baking. If you decide to include decorating at the party, make sure you either have only older kids and adults decorating or lay something under the table to catch the mess for an easier clean-up. The first year we didn't do this and we were sorry.

4. Alternative Activities You might want to provide activities for the participants that have finished making their cookies or are waiting to use the oven(s), especially if you have younger children participating. A small craft project, have some games in mind, some coloring pages and crayons or a Christmas movie are some ideas for simple alternative activities. If possible, do not have very young children come, or have an older child or one of the adults plan to watch over or babysit the young children to keep them safe and not under foot.

5. Another Nice Touch You may want to ask each family to make copies of the recipes they are making and give them to each family participating so they can make them again if they like the cookie.
6. Cookie Tins Each family will need to bring cookie tins, plastic containers or bags to bring home the cookies in. Make sure you bring plenty, as it takes more than you might expect and you don't want to come up short.

Building Traditions and Memories I hope these tips and tricks will help you if you decide to host a Cookie Baking Party. If you have any more, please add your hint in the comments. Remember, a Cookie Baking Party isn't as hard as it might sound, and like I said, it is one of the Christmas traditions that my kids look forward to.

Good recipes for a Cookie Bake:

Do you have any favorite Christmas cookies recipes that would be good for a Cookie Bake Party?

Originally posted 12/7/16

High School Ancient History Lesson 11: The Grandeur That was Rome

Note that security is again the major goal of the Romans -security achieved with the ideals/constitution of the Roman res publica.

Complete the following outline using your notes.

I. Origins of Rome
     A. Dorians
     B. Etruscans
     C. Brutus the Liberator
     D. Res Publica
     E. The Roman Senate
     F. Consuls, "The history of Rome is the history of the ruling class."
     G. Plebians

II. Territorial Expansion
           A. Punic Wars

Hands-on Algebra: Polynomials

Just as we used tiles and cubes to learn basic math, we can use them for more advanced math.
For this lesson, you will need to have three sizes of tiles in two colors to represent tiles and their opposites. 
Notice that these are not perfect or measured exactly. How neat and perfect they are does not matter for older students. They get the idea. All you need is two colors of paper and it will just take a few minutes to cut out what you need. You do not need to spend anything on this as you can use whatever you have around the house and hands-on math should not take you much time to prepare.
Now here are the rules to this game:
  • Each tile has an opposite. For this post, white is positive and yellow is negative. It doesn't matter what colors you use, just so it is clear which is which. 
  • A zero-pair is formed by pairing one tile with its opposite. 
  • You can remove or add zero-pairs without changing the value of the polynomial. 
  • Like terms are represented by tiles that are the same shape and size.

Demonstrate how to use the tiles to show each monomial or polynomial.
 Start with 3x to the second power (sorry I don't have any superscript).
 Then demonstrate x to the second power - 2d.
Your student should now be able to do 
2x to the second power + x - 2.

Now use algebra tiles to simplify 2x to the second power + x to the second power + 2x.

Now combine like terms. In its simplest form, 2x to the second power = x to the second power= 2x = 3x to the second power + 2x.

Now use algebra tiles to simplify 3x + 2 - 5x +1. Rearrange the tiles so that like terms are next to each other.
Form zero-pairs, and then remove all zero-pairs.
In its simplest form, 3x + 2 - 5x +1 = 2x + 3.

Math Journal Activities

Now your student should be able to model and simplify any monomial or polynomial that you give him. He can even make up his own problems to solve in his math journal. For some of them, have him sketch a drawing to show how he got his answer. He could also include in his journal a sentence or two to explain how subtracting polynomials is related to adding polynomials.